WVTM 13 Chronicle: Alabama’s Black History



[SINGING
>>STORIES OF VIOLENCE THAT
BECAME THE DRIVING FORCE FOR THE
MOVEMENT.>>REVEREND SHUTTLESWORTH’S WAS
BEING BOMBED AND JAILED, AND HE
HIMSELF SAID HE WAS WILLING TO
GIVE HIS LIFE.>>OVERLOOKS PIONEERS IN THE
FIGHT FOR CIVIL RIGHTS. DISCOVERING THINGS FROM A
PAINFUL PAST.>>THE STORY HAS EVERY BIT OF
RACISM AND INJUSTICE THAT EVER
HAPPENED TO AFRICAN-AMERICANS IN
THIS COUNTRY.>>THE DIVIDING LINES OF RACE IN
COMMUNITIES. THE WEST SIDE OF CENTER
STREET, YOU WERE SUBJECT TO
BEING ATTACKED.>>WVTM “CHRONICLE” PRESENTS
ALABAMA’S BLACK HISTORY.>>I’M GUY RAWLINGS. EUNICE: I’M EUNICE ELLIOTT. LISA: AND I’M LISA CRANE. WE’RE HERE IN THE BEAUTIFUL
BIRMINGHAM CIVIL RIGHTS MUSEUM. THIS CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL
RESEARCH CENTER PROMOTES THE
SIGNIFICANCE OF CIVIL RIGHTS
DEVELOPMENTS HERE IN BIRMINGHAM
AND ACROSS THE STATE. THROUGHOUT THE GALLERIES, THERE
ARE EXHIBITS HIGHLIGHTING A
PAINFUL HISTORY BUT ALSO
COURAGEOUS MOMENTS FOR AFRICAN
AMERICANS AND THE MISSION TO
GAIN EQUALIT GUY: ONE OF THE BEST-KNOWN CIVIL
RIGHTS PROTESTS IN ALABAMA’S
HISTORY IS THE MONTGOMERY BUS
BOYCOTT. EUNICE: JUST 4 DAYS BEFORE THE
BOYCOTT BEGAN, ROSA PARKS, WAS
ARRESTED AND FINED FOR REFUSING
TO GIVE UP HER SEAT TO A WHITE
MALE PASSENGER ON THE BUS. BUT BEFORE PARKS, THERE WAS
CLAUDETTE COLVIN. CLAUDETTE COLVIN CAN STILL
REMEMBER WHAT SHE WAS WEARING ON
MARCH 2, 195
CLAUDETTE: I HAD ON A LIGHT BLUE
SWEATER AND A DARK BLUE SKIRT. I WILL NEVER FORGET THAT DARK
BLUE SKIRT. EUNICE MORE IMPORTANTLY, THAT
IS THE DAY SHE WAS ARRESTED FOR
REFUSING TO GIVE UP HER SEAT ON
A CITY BUS TO A WHITE PASSENGER. SHE WAS ONLY 15-YEARS-OLD. CLAUDETTE: ONE OF THE WHITE
PASSENGERS SAID, ’YOU BETTER GET
UP, YOU BETTER GET UP. BECAUSE YOU KNOW IT IS THE LAW. AND WHEN I DIDN’T GET UP, ONE OF
THE GIRLS IN THE BACK YELLED,
SHE AIN’T GOT TO DO NOTHING BUT
STAY BLACK AND DIE. OH LORD, I GET SO WOUND UP WHEN
WHEN TRYING TO RELATE BACK TO
THIS. EUNICE: ALTHOUGH CLAUDETTE HA
NOT PLANNED ON SHOWING THIS
PARTICULAR ACT OF DEFIANCE TO
THE SEGREGATION LAWS THAT DAY,
SHE WAS VERY AWARE OF MANY OF
THE UNFAIR PRACTICES TOWARDS BLACK PEOPLE. CLAUDETTE: I SAID HISTORY HAD
GLUED TO THE SEAT. I SAID IT FELT AS THOUGH HARRI
TUBMAN HAND WAS PUSHING ME DOWN
ON ONE SHOULDER AND SOJOURNER
TRUTH AND — HAND WAS PUSHING ME
DOWN ON THE OTHER. EUNICE: ANOTHER NAME WE THINK OF
IN REGARDS TO THE CIVIL RIGHTS
STRUGGLE IS ROSA PARKS. MS. PARKS WAS ARRESTED NINE
MONTHS AFTER COLVIN BUT THE
MONTGOMERY IMPROVEMENT
ASSOCIATION FELT SHE WAS A
BETTER FACE FOR THE MOVEMENT. CLAUDETTE: BECAUSE THE MIA
WANTED TO USE HE
THEY DID NOT WANT TO USE A
TEENAGER BECAUSE WHO WAS GOING
TO FOLLOW A TEENAGER. BY D KING BEING THE
SPOKESPERSON FOR THE MOVEMEN,
HE HAD HELD THE PEOPLE TOGETHER
SO LONG, THEY DID NOT WANT TO
LOSE, SO IN OTHER WORDS, THEY
WERE RUNNING OUT OF TIME, SO THEY WANTED TO USE ROSA TO DRAW
THE PEOPLE IN. THE ADULT PEOPLE I
AND BY ROSA BEING A SEAMSTRESS
AND WORKED AT MONTGOMERY FAI
SHE WAS IN THE HOMES OF A LOT OF
THESE AFFLUENT WHITE PEOPLE
DOING ALTERATIONS AND SO SHE WAS WELL KNOWN IN THE WHITE CIRCLES,
TOO. AND SHE WOULD BE MORE ACCEPTED
THAN A TEENAGE
EUNICE: SO COLVIN IS OFTEN
FORGOTTEN IN THE MOVEMENT.>>OH SURE, I WAS FORGOTTEN FROM
THE DAY I WENT BACK TO SCHOOL. [LAUGHTER]
CLAUDETTE: THE DAY I WENT BACK
TO SCHOOL. MY PEERS, THEY ALL SAID,
CLAUDETTE, YOU ARE CRAZY. EUNICE: OVER TIME, SHE BECAME
ONE OF FOUR PLAINTIFFS IN THE
BUS DESEREGATION CASE THAT WEN
TO THE SUPREME COURT. NOT ROSA PARKS. CLAUDETTE: THEY DON’T KNOW MARY
LOUISE WELLS, THEY DON’T KNOW
SUSAN MCDONALD. OR ORELIA BROWDER. A LOT OF PEOPLE THINK BECAUSE
THEY SAW ROSA SITTING ON THE BUS
AND THEY THOUGHT THAT JUST
BECAUSE SHE GOT UP AND REFUSED,
THAT THAT IS WHAT STOPPED
SEGREGATION. NO, THERE WAS A LOT OF
LITIGATION THAT WENT ON. THAT TOOK PLACE. AND A LOT OF ATTORNEYS
EUNICE: MS. COLVIN SAYS
REGARDLESS OF HER ACTIONS THAT
MARCH DAY, SHE KNEW SHE WOULD BE
PART OF THE FIGHT FOR CHANGE. CLAUDETTE: IF I HADN’T SAT IN
THAT SEAT, I WOULD’VE BEEN
INVOLVED IN SOME WAY
I WOULD HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN
SOME WAY BECAUSE THE MOVEMENT
WAS WITH THE CHILDREN. THE MOVEMENT WAS THE CHILDREN. THE YOUNG GENERATION. EUNICE: AS A YOUNG PERSON WI
FEW BLACK HEROES WRITTEN IN HER
OWN HISTORY BOOKS, MS. COLVIN
HAS BEEN WRITTEN ABOUT IN BOOK
DOCUMENTARIES, TELEVISION, AND
FILM AND HAS EVEN BEEN RECOGNIZED BY CONGRESS — ALL
WHICH SHE TAKES GREAT PRIDE IN. CLAUDETTE: WELL, WONDERFUL THA
SOMEBODY IS STILL THINKING ABOUT
THE STRUGGLE. EUNICE: ON JUNE 5, 1956, A
MONTGOMERY FEDERAL COURT RUL
THAT ANY LAW REQUIRING RACIALLY
SEGREGATED SEATING ON BUSES
VIOLATED THE 14TH AMENDMENT OF
THE U.S. CONSTITUTIO IN MONTGOMERY, A STATUE OF ROSA
PARKS NOW STANDS NEAR MONTGOME
PLAZA JUST FEET FROM WHERE PARKS
BOARDED THAT NOW FAMOUS
IT WAS UNVEILED ON DECEMBER 1,
THE 64TH ANNIVERSARY OF HER 19 ARREST. LISA: HITTING BUSINESSES’ BOTTOM
LINE. THAT WAS THE PUSH, DURING A
CAMPAIGN IN BIRMINGHAM, IN THE
EARLY 1960’
GUY: IAN REITZ TALKED WITH THE
DAUGHTER OF THE MAN WHO LEAD
THAT EFFORT ABOUT HOW THINGS PLAYED OUT. IAN: IMAGES LIKE THESE, FROM THE
MAGIC CITY, WERE SEEN NATIONWIDE
IN THE EARLY 1960’S. BUT WHAT MANY MAY NOT HAVE SEEN
OR HEARD MUCH ABOUT, IS A
POWERFUL MOVEMENT IN BIRMINGHAM
IN 196
>>THE SELECTIVE BUYING CAMPAIGN
HAS BEEN IDENTIFIED BY MANY AS THE DEFINING FACTOR THAT ALLOW
DR. KING TO COME TO BIRMINGH
AND HAVE SUCCESSFUL
DEMONSTRATIONS THAT TOOK PLACE
IN 1963. IAN: DONNA DUKES KNOWS THE INS
OUTS OF THAT MOVEMENT. DONNA: MY DAD, FRANK DUKES,
DEVELOPED THE SELECTIVE BUYING
CAMPAIGN. IAN: AT THE TIME, FRANK DUKES
WAS THE SGA PRESIDENT AT MILES
COLLEGE. HE AND OTHER STUDENTS PUT
TOGETHER FLYERS ABOUT THEIR
CAMPAIGN. DONNA SAYS SIMILAR CAMPAIGNS HAD
BEEN TRIED BEFORE BUT WERE NOT
SUCCESSFUL. DONNA: IN BIRMINGHAM DURING TH
TIME, IT WAS ILLEGAL TO HAVE A
BOYCOTT. SO MY DAD DECIDED TO CALL THE
CAMPAIGN A SELECTIVE BUYING
CAMPAIGN, MEANING WE ARE GOING
TO BE SELECTIVE ABOUT WHERE WE
SHOP, THEREFORE, THEY WERE NOT
BREAKING THE LAW.>>BUT T BUYING
CAMPAIGN, THEY WANTED TO AFFECT
THAT BOTTOM LINE. IAN: CHARLES WOODS, III RUNS THE
EDUCATION PROGRAMS AT THE
BIRMINGHAM CIVIL RIGHTS
INSTITUTE. HE SAYS THE CAMPAIGN AIMED TO
GET THE STORES TO DESEGREGATE. ORGANIZERS ALSO WANTED TO SEE
BLACK CLERKS AND ATTENDANTS
WORKING WHERE THEY SHOPPED
CHARLES: AFRICAN AMERICANS
CONTRIBUTED TO ABOUT 25% OF
THEIR BOTTOM LINE FOR STORES. THEY RECOGNIZED THAT IF THEY
STOPPED SUPPORTING THOSE
BUSINESSES, A LOT OF THEM WOULD
GO OUT OF BUSINESS. IAN: THE CAMPAIGN LASTED INTO
1963 AND CHARLES SAYS IT
CONTINUED, DESPITE EFFORTS TO
STOP IT. CHARLES: THE WAY THE CITY
RESPONDED TO THE SELECTIVE
BUYING CAMPAIGN WITH THAT THEY
WOULD CUT OFF FOOD TO 70,000
POOR BLACK FAMILIES. IAN: BUT THE STUDENTS FROM MILES
AND THEIR PARTNERS DIDN’T LET
UP, AND DONNA SAYS THEY WERE
EVENTUALLY ABLE TO DESEGREGATE
TWO DEPARTMENT STORES. DONNA: SUCCESS OF THE CAMPAIGN
REALLY DEPENDED ON THE FACT THAT
MY FATHER’S CAMPAIGN WELCOMED
INVOLVEMENT OF WOMEN, WHITES,
YOU DID NOT HAVE TO BE A
MINISTER TO BE A PART OF THE CAMPAIGN. AND SO, WHEN YOU HAVE THAT TYPE
OF DIVERSITY AND INCLUSIVITY YOU
HAVE SUCCESS
IAN: WITH THE GIFT OF A CAMERA
FROM HER MOM, DONNA SHARES MORE
OF THIS HISTORY IN A DOCUMENTARY SHE PRODUCED. IT IS CALLED “STAND: UNTOLD
STORIES FROM THE CIVIL RIGHTS
MOVEMENT
DONNA: I AM BLESSED THAT MY
PARENTS WERE QUITE OPEN WITH ME
ABOUT THE TRUE NATURE OF THE BIRMINGHAM CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
, THAT IT WAS NOT THIS MOVEMENT
WHERE THERE WERE BLACKS ON ONE
SIDE AND WHITES ON ANOTHER, AND
THERE WAS THIS HUGE DIVIDE. THEY EXPLAINED THAT THERE WERE
WHITES THAT WERE VERY INVOLVED
IN THE MOVEMENT AND VERY
SUPPORTIVE OF THE MOVEMENT. IAN: THE FILM PREMIERED AT MILES
COLLEGE. WHEN HER DAD SAW IT, HE LOVED
IT. AND DONNA LOVES SHARING TH
PART OF BIRMINGHAM’S HISTOR
WITH OTHERS. DONNA: I CONSIDERED IT AN HONOR
TO SHED LIGHT ON AN ASPECT OF
THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT TH
PEOPLE DID NOT REALIZE EXISTED. I LOVE THE FACT THAT THE CIVIL
RIGHTS MOVEMENT HAD THE
SELECTIVE BUYING CAMPAIGN
19 TO STICK TO. OTHERWISE, WE MIGHT NOT HAVE HAD
1963. IAN: IAN REITZ, WVTM 13 NEWS.>>EVERY YEAR AT THIS TIME, WE
TAKE A LOOK BA AT THE
PEOPLE THAT CHANGE THE POLITICS
AND CULTURE OF ALABAMA AND OUR
CITY.>>MARTIN LUTHER KING JR., FRED
SHUTTLESWORTH, RALPH ABERNATHY,
AND REPRESENTATIVE JOHN LEWIS. EUNICE: STILL THERE ARE A LOT OF
NAMES THAT GO UNMENTIONED
INCLUDING A YOUNG WOMAN FROM
RIGHT HERE IN BIRMINGHAM. RARELY DO WE SAY HER NAME.>>A YOUNG GIRL BY THE NAME OF
BONITA CARTER.>>BONITA PATRI CARTER. EUNICE: WHO IS BONITA CARTER?>>IN 1979, A YOUN WOMAN WAS
TRAGICALLY MURDERED BY POLICE
OFFICER GEORGE SANDS AFTER AN
ALTERCATION INSIDE THIS STORE
AND SHE WAS JUST AN INNOCENT
BYSTANDER. EUNICE THAT INNOCENT LEAD TO
MORE THAN JUST AN OUTCRY IN THE
COMMUNITY FOR POLICE REFORM, AS
BIRMINGHAM POLICE OFFICER GEORGE
SANDS HAD BEEN INVOLVED IN
SEVERAL OTHER INCIDENTS WHERE EXCESSIVE FORCE HAD BEEN
ALLEGED.>>UNFORTUNATELY, THE MAYOR AT
THE TIME DID NOT TAKE ACTION
AGAINST GEORGE SANDS. HE DID NOT FIRE HIM AND THERE
WERE NO CHARGES HELD AGAINST
HIM. EUNICE: AN INNOCENT YOUNG WOMAN,
KYL JUST BLOCKS FROM THE HOME
SHE SHARED WITH HER PARENTS. THE COMMUNITY’S OUTRAGE SWELLED
AND A BIRMINGHAM CITY COUNCILMAN
KNOWN FOR PUSHING FOR POLICE
REFORM WAS PUSHED TO THE
FOREFRONT OF THE FIGHT
>>WELL, THE BONITA CARTER INCIDENT SORT OF CHANGED MY
LIFE. THE DIRECTION OF MY LIFE
>>BONITA’S DEATH WOULD FOREVER
CHANGE POLITICS IN BIRMINGHAM. LARGELY INFLUENCING DR. RICHARD
ARRINGTON TO RUN FOR MAYO AND
ULTIMATELY BECOMING THE FIRST
BLACK MAYOR OF THE CITY OF
BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA. EUNICE: DR. ARRINGTON’S ROLE AS
MAYOR HAS BEEN TOLD BUT THERE’S
LITTLE KNOWN INFORMATION ABOUT
THE YOUNG WOMAN WHOSE DEATH
SPARKED THIS HISTORICAL MOMENT
AND WHO SHE WAS TO HER FAMILY AND FRIENDS. WE SUNG IN THE CHOIR
TOGETHER. SHE ACTUALLY, HER BIRTHDAY
WAS SIX DAYS AFTER MINE, WE ARE
JANUARY BABIES. JANUARY 20 AND JANUARY 26, WE
ALWAYS TALK ABOUT THE JANUARY
BABIES. SHE NEVER MET A STRANGER, SHE
WAS A FRIENDLY PERSON. IT WAS TOTAL DEVASTATION FOR THE
ENTIRE COMMUNITY. EUNICE: THAT COMMUNITY NOW BEARS
A MARKER TO RECOGNIZE BONITA
CARTER. HER LIFE. AND HER DEATH.>>ALL OF THEM, BLACK, WHITE,
WILL KNOW THE BONITA CARTER
STORY AND HOW THAT TRAGIC
INCIDENT HERE IN BIRMINGHAM LED
THE BIRMINGHAM COMMUNITY,
BLACK-AND-WHITE, TO DECIDE THAT WE MUST CHANGETHIS COMMUNITY. WE MUST BECOME A BETTER PLACE.>>40 YEARS LATER, WE STILL
MOURN BONITA’S DEATH. IT IS A REMINDER THAT THE EVILS
OF RACISM CAN BEAR FATAL
CONSEQUENCES.>>BONITA BETRIECE CARTER. SAY HER NAME. THE REASON IT IS IMPORTANT TO
SAY HERE NAME IS BECAUSE SHE
ONE OF US. AND 40 YEARS LATER, SHE WILL
FOREVER BE A PART OF US. EUNICE: LISA, I REALLY
ENJOY DOING THAT FEATURE ON
BONITA CARTER. SHE’S ONE OF THOSE NAMES THAT
YOU DON’T HEAR A LOT IN BLACK
HISTORY. LISA: THAT’S WHAT THIS IS ALL
ABOUT. WE WANT TO SHINE A LIGHT ON
THOSE OFTEN FORGOTTEN PEOPLE
PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE
MOVEMENT. COMING UP, AN IN-DEPTH LOOK AT
THE CATALYST OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS
FIGHT HERE IN BIRMINGHAM. THE STORY BEHIND REVEREND FRED
SHUTTLESWORTH’S PUSH FOR
EQUALITY FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS
DESPITE THE VIOLENCE AND DOUBT
HE WAS UP AGAINST. PLUS, PRESERVING THE STORIES
BEHIND THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN
VOTE. WE’LL TAKE YOU INSIDE THE
NATIONAL VOTING RIGHTS MUSEUM IN
SELMA, WHERE WORK IS UNDERWAY TO
SHARE THAT IMPORTANT PIECE OF
HISTORY WITH FUTURE GENERATION
GUY: AND AS WE HEAD TO BREAK WE REMEMBER A CIVIL RIGHTS PIONEE
WHO LEFT HIS MARK ON THE WORLD,
AND NOW A PLACE HERE IN THE CITY
IS MEMORIALIZED IN HIS HONOR. THESE BARS ARE THOSE FROM THE
JAIL CELL THAT HELD DR. KING IN
BIRMINGHAM. NOW THE CELL ITSELF HONORS
DR. KING. IT IS LOCATED ON THE 7TH FLOOR
INSIDE THE COUNTY COURTHOUSE. HE WROTE HIS LETTER FROM
BIRMINGHAM JAIL IN 1963. BUT IN OCTOBER 1967, THE CIVIL
RIGHTS LEADER WAS ARRESTED AND
SENT TO BOTH THE BESSEMER AND
BIRMINGHAM-JEFFERSON COUNTY
JAIL
THAT WAS JUST 5 MONTHS BEFORE HIS ASSASSINATION. ♪
GUY: HIS NAME IS ALL ACROSS
BIRMINGHAM. THERE’S A STREET NAMED AFTER HIM
AND THE AIRPORT HONORS HIM AS
WELL. IT WAS THAT — AT BETHEL BAPTIST
CHURCH IS WHERE REVEREND FRED
SHUTTLESWORTH FIRST STARTED THE
FIGHT FOR CIVIL RIGHTS. IT WAS HIS DETERMINATION TO GAIN
EQUALITY FOR HIS PEOPLE THAT
ENCOURAGED OTHERS TO GET ON
BOARD.>>REVEREND SHUTTLESWORTH WAS
BEING BOMBED, JAILED, BEATEN,
AND ARRESTED, YOU NAME
IT, HE WENT THROUGH IT.>>PASTOR THOMAS WILDER IS THE
PASTOR AT BETHEL BAPTIST CHURCH
— THE SAME CHURCH REVEREND
SHUTTLESWORTH PASTORED FROM 1953
TO 1961.>>PRAYED ABOUT IT. I FELT LIKE THIS IS WHERE GOD
WANTED ME TO BE. AND I CAME HERE. GUY: WILDER ADMITS, HE INITIALLY
DIDN’T KNOW ABOUT
SHUTTLEWORTH’S LEGACY, BUT SOON
LEARNED.>>I MET REVEREND SHUTTLESWORTH,
BEGAN TO TALK TO HIM, BEGAN TO
RESEARCH THEM AND THOUGHT, WOW,
WHAT I STEPPED INTO. EUNICE: PASTOR WILDER POINTS OUT
THAT NOT ONLY DID THE FIRST
STEPS IN THE CIVIL RIGHTS FIGHT
BEGIN IN COLLEGEVILLE’S BETHEL
BAPTIST CHURCH, BUT, REVEREND
SHUTTLESWORTH WAS THE CATALYST FOR THE MOVEMENT ACROSS THE
CITY. REVEREND SHUTTLESWORTH HOME
WAS BOMBED TO THE FIRST TIME IN
1956 AND THEN AGAIN IN 1958, AND
THEN AGAIN IN 1962. GUY: A POLICE OFFICER APPROACHED
SHUTTLESWORTH AFTER ONE OF THE
BOMBINGS.>>HE SAID REV, I WOULD GET OUT
OF TOWN AS FAST AS I COULD. I SAID, YOU ARE NOT ME. GO BACK AND TELL YOUR CLANS
BROTHER AND, IF GOD CAN GET ME
THROUGH THIS, THEN I AM IN IT
FOR THE DURATION.>>HE WAS NON-VIOLENT, BUT, HE
WAS CONFRONTATIONAL AND MOST
PEOPLE DON’T UNDERSTAND HOW YOU
CAN BE BOTH. HE WOULD GET UP IN YOUR FACE, HE
WOULD CALL THINGS AS HE SAW
THEM. AND EVERYTHING THAT HE SAW THAT
WERE DEFINITELY WRONG. HE WAS NOT AFRAID TO CONFRONT
SEGREGATION ON ALL FRONTS. GUY: FROM BUSING.>>SO WE RODE THE BUSES & OVER
250 PEOPLE GOT ARRESTED, I
I GUESS AND JOINT DESEGREGATED
RIDING. GUY: TO EDUCATION.>>HIS WIFE DURING THE
CONVERSATION AT PHILLIPS HIGH
SCHOOL WAS STABBED IN THE HIP,
BY SOMEBODY WAS FIGHTING HIM. HE HAD BEEN HIT WITH BRASS
KNUCKLES. GU TO EMPLOYMENT AND VOTING,
IT SEEMED ALL ASPECTS OF LIFE IN
THE SOUTH WERE SEPARATE, AND
UN-EQUAL.>>IT WAS A CULTURAL
SEGREGATION, BUT THERE WAS ALSO
A LEGAL SEGREGATION WITH LAWS ON
THE BOOKS THAT SAID THAT WHITE
PEOPLE AND BLACK PEOPLE COULD
NOT PLAY TOGETHER. ♪
GU EVENTUALLY, SHUTTLESWORTH
INVITED DR. KING TO THE FIELD. THOUGH, KING WAS SLOW IN COMING,

>>HE INVITED HIM AND INVITED
HIM. ANDREW YOUNG ALSO STATES THE
SAME THING. THAT IT TOOK 3 YEARS TO GET HIM
TO COME. BUT REVEREND SHUTTLESWORTH
CONVINCED HIM TO COME IN 1963
AND SAID TO HIM, IF YOU CAN
SUCCEED IN BIRMINGHAM, YOU CAN
TO EXCEED — SUCCEED ANYWHERE. BECAUSE BIRMINGHAM AT THAT TIME
HAD THE REPUTATION AS THE MO
SEGREGATED CITY IN AMERICA. GUY: ALL THIS ORIGINATED OUT OF
BETHEL BAPTIST CHURCH, BECAUSE
REVEREND SHUTTLESWORTH THOUGHT
NOT ONLY WAS IT GOD’S WILL FOR
HIM, BUT IT WAS MORALLY AND
SPIRITUALLY THE RIGHT THING TO DO.>>WHAT HAPPENED HERE REALLY DID
MAKE A CHANGE ACROSS THE WORLD. NELSON MANDELA EVEN TALKS ABOUT
WHAT HAPPENED IN BIRMINGHAM,
TENEMENT SQUARE, THEY WERE
SINGING, “WE SHALL OVERCOME.”
ALL OF THAT CAME FROM THE SMALL
BUILDING AND FROM ON MAN NAMED REVEREND FRED SHUTTLESWORTH. ♪
GUY: PASTOR WILDER ALSO TOLD ME
THAT NOT EVERYONE WAS ON BOARD
WITH SHUTTLESWORTH MOVEMENT. IN FACT, SOME FOLKS THOUGHT HIS
BRAVERY BORDERED INSANITY, BUT
HE FELT THAT THE ONLY WAY TO
TAKE ON THIS PEOPLE WAS
FACE-TO-FACE.>>IMAGES LIKE THIS WERE ALL TOO
COMMON AS AFRICAN-AMERICANS
TRIED TO REGISTER TO VOTE. SHERIFF’S BLOCKING THE DOORS TO
THE COURTHOUSE
AS YOU GET READY TO VOTE THIS
YEAR, WE ARE TAKING A LOOK AT
THE CRUCIAL ROLE ALABAMA PLAYED
IN MAKING THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965 A REALITY.>>IAN REITZ TRAVELED TO SELMA
TO LOOK AT HOW CERTAIN EVENTS IN
OUR STATE LED TO CHANGE IN OUR
NATION AND HOW THAT HISTORY IS
BEING PRESERVED.>>I TURNED 12 JUST FOUR DAYS
AFTER THE SELMA-MONTGOMERY
MARCH. IAN: SAM WALKER LIVED SOME OF
THE HISTORY ON DISPLAY AT THE
NATIONAL VOTING RIGHTS MUSEUM
AND INSTITUTE IN SELMA.>>AT 11-YEARS-OLD I GOT LOCKED
IN ONE OF THESE CELLS TWO TIME. IAN: YOU DID?>>YES. MARCHING FOR THE RIGHT TO VOTE. IAN: DECADES LATER, HE RETURNED
HOME TO ENSURE THAT HISTORY WAS
PRESERVED. TODAY, HE’S THE MUSEUM’S
HISTORIAN. WHEN SAM SHOWED ME AROUND, HE
WAS QUICK TO POINT OUT THE
STORIES OF FOOT SOLDIERS
>>EVERYONE HAS SEEN THE
PICTURES AND IMAGES OF DR. KING
LEADING THE CIVIL RIGHT MARCHES. THEN YOU SEE ALL THE PEOPLE
WALKING IN BACK OF DR. KING. THOSE ARE THE PEOPLE WE CALL THE
FOOT SOLDIER
IAN: MEN AND WOMEN, YOUNG AND
OLD, WHO MARCHED FOR VOTING
RIGHTS DURING BLOODY SUNDAY ON
THE EDMOND PETTUS BRIDGE OR TH FIVE-DAY DAY MARCH FROM SELMA TO
MONTGOMERY. SAM: WHEN YOU WALK THROUGH T
MUSEUM, YOU WILL SEE FOOTPRINTS. IA THOSE FOOTPRINTS ARE FROM
THE FOOT SOLDIERS WHO HAVE
SHARED AND RECORDED THEIR
STORIES AT THE MUSEUM, SOME
3,000 OF THEM TO DATE. THE STEPS THEY TOOK IN HISTORY. NOW ON DISPLAY NEXT TO BLACK AND
WHITE PICTURES THAT CAPTURED THE
VIOLENCE THAT MARCHERS FACED IN
THE 1960’S. THOSE VERY IMAGES, SHARED AROUND
THE GLOBE AT THE TIME, AND
HELPED TURN THE STRUGGLE FOR
VOTING RIGHTS IN ALABAMA INTO A
NATIONWIDE ISSUE. SAM: NOBODY THOUGHT ABOUT MAKING
HISTORY WHEN THEY WAS DOING IT,
THEY JUST WANTED TO BE TREATED
BETTER. IAN: WHILE THE 15TH AMENDMENT
GUARANTEED AFRICAN-AMERICANS THE
RIGHT TO VOTE, EXERCISING THAT
RIGHT WAS NOT EASY IN SOME
SOUTHERN STATES LIKE ALABAMA.>>IN 1901, THEY INSTITUTED JIM
CROW LAWS AND BLACK CODES,
INTO THE CONSTITUTION. THAT WAS MAINLY TO KEEP AFRICAN
AMERICANS FROM EXERCISING THEIR
RIGHTS TO VOTE. SO THINGS LIKE THE GRANDFATHER
CLAUSE, WHICH IS A CLAUSE THAT
SAID IF YOUR GRANDFATHER WAS A
SLAVE AND COULD NOT VOTE, THEN
YOU COULD NOT VOTE, IT WAS
INSTITUTED INTO THE CONSTITUTION AS WELL AS LITERACY TESTS AND
FULL TAXES. IAN: CHARLES WOODS IS THE
EDUCATION PROGRAM MANAGER AT THE
BIRMINGHAM CIVIL RIGHTS
INSTITUTE. HE SAYS WHEN AFRICAN AMERICANS
BEGAN TO EXERCISE THEIR RIGHT TO
PROTEST WITH THE MONTGOMERY BUS
BOYCOTT IN THE 1950’S, THE CIVIL
RIGHTS MOVEMENT REALLY STARTED
TO TAKE SHAPE AND ALONG THE WAY , OUR STATE WAS GROUND ZER
CHARLES: MONTGOMERY IS WHERE THE
SOUTHERN STATES SECEDED FROM
UNION TO CREATE CONFEDERACY, AND
THE SAME PLACE WHERE DR. KING
STOOD ON STEPS TO SAY WHY VOTING RIGHTS ARE IMPORTANT. IAN: TODAY, YOU’LL FIND A FEW
CAMPAIGN SIGNS RIGHT ACROSS FR
THE MUSEUM. A SIGN THAT AN ELECTION IS JUST
AROUND THE CORNER. INSIDE, THERE ARE SIGNS
EVERYWHERE REMINDING US THAT THE
RIGHT TO VOTE FOR
AFRICAN-AMERICANS IN THAT
ELECTION DID NOT COME EASY. AND THAT FIGHT SHOULD NEVER BE
FORGOTTE
SAM: THIS IS JUST RIGHT OUTSIDE
THIS WINDOW. IAN: THAT IS WHY 27 YEARS AFTER
HE FIRST WALKED IN THOSE HALLS,
SAM IS HERE DAY AFTER DAY,
SHARING THAT HISTORY, AND
INSPIRING OTHERS TO GO OUT AND
MAKE THEIR OWN. SAM: I WANT THEM TO SEE
THEMSELVES IN THESE PICTURES. THESE WERE ORDINARY REGULAR
PEOPLE. THESE WERE NOT ELITE PEOPLE. NOTHING SPECIA
THEY JUST WANTS TO DO WHAT THEY
COULD TO MAKE THE SITUATION
BETTER. EVERY INDIVIDUAL CAN DO WHAT
THEY CAN TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE. IAN: IAN REITZ, WVTM 13 NEWS. LISA: THIS YEAR MARKS 150 YEARS
SINCE THE 15TH AMENDMENT WAS
ADDED AND 55 YEARS SINCE T
PRESIDENT LYNDON B. JOHNSON
SIGNED THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT. EUNICE: THE 16TH STREET BAPTIST
CHURCH WILL OPEN DOORS TO ITS
NEW STATE-OF-THE-ART MUSEUM THIS
FALL. HERE’S WHAT IT WILL LOOK LIKE
ONCE ITS COMPLETE. THE CHURCH IS USING UNITY SMART
CITY KIOSK TECHNOLOGY MADE BY
LOCAL TECH COMPANY, JUKE. THE MUSEUM WILL SHOWCASE T
HISTORY OF THE CHURCH DATING
BACK TO 1873, FOCUSING ON THE
MAJOR IMPACT THE CHURCH PLAYED
DURING THE CIVIL RIGHTS
MOVEMENT. 16TH STREET BAPTIST CHUR
BOASTS MORE THAN 100,000
VISITORS EVERY YEAR. DELTACOM, A STREET DIVIDED. A NEIGHBORHOOD BOMBED SO MANY
TIMES, IT BECAME KNOWN AS
DYNAMITE TILL, BUT OUT OF THE
ASHES ROSE PEOPLE WHO WOULD NOT
BACK DOWN. AND A PLACE BORN OUT OF A LOVE
FOR MUSIC. HOW ONE MAN USED JUST HIS GUITAR
AND A SMALL SHACK TO BRING
PEOPLE OF ALL RACES TOGETHER
EUNICE: —
GU HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES
AND UNIVERSITIES ARE SEEING A BIG BOOST IN FUNDING, THANKS TO
A RECENT SPENDING BILL. SENATOR DOUG JONES ADVOCATED FOR
THIS BILL WHICH MANDATES
PERMANENT FUNDING. AS WE HAD TO BREAK, WE RECOGNIZE
A HISTORIC DONATION AT MILES
COLLEGE. FORMER AUBURN BASKETBALL AND NBA
STAR CHARLES BARKLEY GIFTED THE
COLLEGE $1 MILLION. IT IS THE LARGEST SINGLE
DONATION IN THE SCHOOL’S 122
YEAR HISTORY. BARKLEY VISITED THE COLLEGE,
BACK IN SEPTEMBE
THAT MONEY WILL GO TO
SCHOLARSHIPS AND LAUNCHING THE
SCHOOLS $100 MILLION
COMPREHENSIVE CAMPAIGN. ♪
EUNICE: BIRMINGHAM’S CENTER
STREET WAS A BATTLEGROUND OF THE
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. IT BECAME A CENTRAL MEETING SPOT
FOR SOME OF THE MOST PROMINENT
NAMES IN CIVIL RIGHTS HISTORY. HOMES WERE BOMBED, RIOTS BROKE
OUT. SARAH KILLIAN SHARES ONE MAN’S
JOURNEY OF GROWING UP ON CENTER
STREET.>>CENTER STREET WAS THE
DIVIDING LINE, THE REAL ESTATE
DIVIDING LINE BETWEEN BLACKS AND
WHITES. SARAH: JEFF DREW HAS SPENT ALL
HIS LIFE ON CENTER STREET. HE REMEMBERS A TIME THIS AREA
WAS KNOWN AS DYNAMITE HILL AND
HE KNOWS ALL TOO WELL HOW THAT
NICKNAME STARTED. JEFF: THE FIRST BOMBING TOOK
PLACE AT ARTHUR’S SHORES HOUSE. MANY OF US, IT HAPPENED THAT
NIGHT, AND WE WENT DOWN TO SEE
THE DAMAGE. IT WAS A HORRIFIC EXPERIENCE AND
THAT IS THE MOMENT IN MY LIFE I
GUESS I WAS ABOUT NINE YEARS OLD
THAT REALLY POLARIZED ME AND
MADE ME UNDERSTAND WHAT BIGOTRY
AND HATRED WAS. SARA’S PARENTS, JOHN AND DANNY
DREW WERE KEY FIGURES IN THE
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. THEY WERE INSTRUMENTAL IN
HELPING AFRICAN-AMERICANS
REGISTER TO VOTE IN BIRMINGHAM
AND WERE PERSONALLY INVITED BY
DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING TO GET
INVOLVED IN THE MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOT
JEFF: THAT HELPED TO SOLIDIFY
THE MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT. DURING THAT MEETING, UNCLE MIKE
ASKED DAD IF HE WAS IN
BIRMINGHAM, COULD HE COME AND
VISIT WITH U
MOM AND DAD SAID SHERRY. SARAH: DR. KING DID NOT JUST
VISIT WITH THE DREW’S. THEIR HOME HERE ON CENTER STREET
BECAME THE MEETING SPOT FOR WHAT
WAS KNOWN AS THE CENTRAL
COMMITTEE. JEFF: FRED SHUTTLESWORTH AS W
ALL KNOW, FIREBALL FRED, FRED
WAS FAIRLY RADICAL. HE WAS A FIGHTER. AND MARTIN WAS MORE MODERATE A
MORE CONSERVATIVE. WE HAD THOSE TWO STRONG VIEWS
THAT HAD TO BE MELTED TOGETHER
.
THAT MELTING OCCURRED RIGHT HERE
WHERE WE SIT. SARAH: AS A CHILD, DREW SAW IT
ALL. FOR HIM, ONE MOMENT IN
PARTICULAR STANDS OUT. JEFF: THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE WAS
MEETING AND THE PHONE RANG FRO
THE WHITE HOUSE. HIS SIDE OF THE CONVERSATION
WAS, HELLO, MR. PRESIDEN
NO, WE ARE NOT GOING TO STOP
THE SIT INS. I AM SORRY THAT YOU ARE
EMBARRASSED ABOUT WHAT IS GOING
ON IN BIRMINGHAM, BUT WE WANT
THE WHOLE WORLD TO KNOW THAT YOU
SUPPORT BULL CONNOR AND YOU
SUPPORT ALABAMA, AND YOU SUPPORT SEGREGATION, AND YOU SUPPORT THE
VIOLENCE GOING ON IN BIRMINGHAM. I AM SORRY, BUT WE ARE NOT GOING
TO STOP FOR IT. BAM, HUNG THE TELEPHONE UP
ON THE PRESIDENT. SARAH: FOR JEFF DREW, THAT IS
WHY KING’S DEATH IS STILL SO
PAINFUL. JEFF WHEW! MY MOM AND DAD WERE INVITED TO
THE FUNERAL. THEY WENT, I DID NOT GO. I THINK I SAW ONE PICTURE OF MY
DAD — [CRYING] MY DAD’S HAND ON
THE CASKET. IT WAS THE LOWEST POINT OF MY
PARENTS LIFE. SARA HIGHS AND LOWS GROWING UP
ON CENTER STREET. DREW FEELS LIKE IT’S IMPORTANT
TO TALK ABOUT IT ALL. JEFF: I’M GOING TO SPEAK OUT
ABOUT IT. I’M GOING TO WRITE ABOUT IT. AND I’M LIKE TO TRY AND HELP US
MAKE PEOPLE AS I CAN TO LIVE
TOGETHER IN HARMONY. SARAH: LIVING TOGETHER IN
HARMONY. THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF THE CIVIL
RIGHTS MOVEMENT. IN BIRMINGHAM, SARAH KILLIAN
, WVTM 13. GU ANOTHER MEETING PLACE THAT
BECAME A STAPLE IN THE AFRICAN
AMERICAN COMMUNITY — THE
BARBERSHOP. THERE YOU COULD GET A CLEAN
SHAVE AND IT CREATED
OPPORTUNITIES FOR AFRICAN
AMERICANS TO GENERATE THEIR OWN
INCOME. ONE OF THE MOST PROMINENT
BARBERS OF THE CIVIL RIGHT
MOVEMENT WAS JAMES ARMSTRONG. HE WAS KNOWN AS THE BARBER OF
BIRMINGHAM. HE ACTUALLY CUT DR. MARTIN
LUTHER KING JR’S HAIR AND THE
ACTUAL CHAIR. LISA: WE LOST HENRY GIPSON KNOWN
BY MOST AS GIP PASSED AWAY AT
THE AGE OF 99. TIL ALMOST THE VERY END THOUGH,
HE WAS STILL PLAYING THE BLUES
IN HIS BACKYARD JUKE JOINT. PEOPLE CAME FROM ALL OVER THE
WORLD TO HEAR HIM. GIP’S PLACE, AND GIP HIMSELF,
PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN
ALABAMA’S BLACK HISTORY AND HIS
FAMILY HOPES TO CONTINUE HIS
LEGACY OF BRINGING PEOPLE
TOGETHER THROUGH THE LOVE OF MUSI

>>REAL EAMAZING. [BLUES MUSIC PLAYING]
>>HENRY GIPSON WAS A BLUES
LEGEND. WHAT STARTED AS JAM SESSIONS A
HIS BESSEMER HOME IN THE EARLY
1950’S GREW INTO AN ALL-OUT JUKE
JOINT, STILL POPULAR TODAY,
ALMOST 70 YEARS LATER.>>EVERYBODY MET HIM, HE MADE
THEM FEEL LIKE THEY WERE FAMILY. SO IF HE SAW YOU, HE WOULD HAVE
CALLED YOU HIS DAUGHTER AND HE
MAKES YOU FEEL LIKE YOU ARE HOME
WHEN YOU COME HERE.>>IT’S ONE OF THE LAST STANDI
JUKE JOINTS IN THE COUNTRY WHERE
YOU CAN STILL FIND GOOD COMPANY
AND GREAT LIVE MUSIC.>>MR. HENRY GIPSON WAS THE
BLUES. HIS LIFE WAS THE BLUES. YOU LOOK AT MR. HENRY, THOSE
BROTHERS WERE CUT FROM SOMETHING
DIFFERENT.>>BUT JOCK WEBB HAS EARNED
MAJOR RESPECT IN THE BLUES MUSIC
SCENE HIMSELF. ♪ [BLUES MUSIC] ♪
>>HE’S FOLLOWING THE FOOTSTEPS
OF THOSE LIK GIP WHO CAME
BEFORE HIM.>>ONE THING I LIKE ABOUT MR. GIP, HE’S GOING TO OPEN UP WITH
A PRAYER. HIS PLACE WAS MORE CHURCH AND
SPIRITUAL THAN ANYTHING.>>INFORMAL ESTABLISHMENTS LIKE
GIP’S PLACE WORK, AND HE ARGUES,
STILL ARE AN IMPORTANT PART OF
AFRICAN AMERICAN CULTURE IN THE
SOUTH. WE WERE NOT ALLOWED TO
CONGREGATE IN SUCH A WAY INTO DO
ANYTHING THAT HAD TO DO WITH OUR
CULTURE. WE FOUND WAYS OF WORSHIPING. WE FOUND WAYS OF CLEANSING,
FOUND WAYS OF GIVING THANKS TO
THE SPIRIT. WE FOUND THE BELIEF THAT
SOMEDAY, WE WOULD SEE THE OTHER
SIDE OF THE ROAD SO TO SPEAK.>>HAS TIMES HAVE CHANGED, SO
HAVE THE BLUES, REACHING BEYOND
THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITY
WHERE STARTED AND BEING
EMBRACED BY PEOPLE OF EVERY
COLOR.>>IT DOES NOT MATTER WHAT COLOR
A PERSON IS. THAT SPIRIT EXIST IN ALL OF US.>>IT IS MUSIC THAT BREAKS
BARRIERS AND FORMS BONDS.>>THAT STUNG MOTTO OF MY FATHER
WHEN HE WAS LIVIG. NO BLACK, NO WHITE, NO COLORS. LET’S BRING EVERYBODY TOGETHER. [BLUES MUSIC CLOSE]
GUY: JEFFERSON COUNT SCHOOL
MADE HISTORY THIS YEAR
RECOGNIZING DR. WALTER GONSOULIN
JR. AT THE FIRST BLACK
SUPERINTENDENT FOR JEFFERSON CITY SCHOOLS. HE SERVES 56 SCHOOLS IN THE
LARGEST DISTRICT IN THE STATE. DR. GONSOULIN IS NO STRANGER TO
THE NEEDS OF THE DISTRICT. HE HAD SERVED AS DEPUTY
SUPERINTENDENT FOR TWO AND A
HALF YEARS. COMING UP, THE BEGINNING OF A
NEW ERA. CHANGING THE FACE OF POLITICS IN
BIRMINGHAM FOREVER. DR. RICHARD ARRINGTON DETAILS
HIS MOVE FROM COLLEGE PROFESSOR
TO LEADER OF A CITY DIVIDED BY
RACE. LISA: I KNOW WHERE WE ARE, I
KNOW WHERE WE’VE COME FROM, AND
I KNOW WHERE WE STILL NEED TO GO
AS A CITY. GUY: THAT QUOTE ECHOED ACROSS
BIRMINGHAM AS DR. RICHARD
ARRINGTON JR, WAS SWORN IN
AS THE CITY’S FIRST BLACK MAYOR
40 YEARS AGO. EUNICE: AND WE’RE HEARING ABOUT
HIS JOURNEY INTO IN HIS OWN
WORDS.>>MAYOR ARRINGTON FIRST BLACK
MAYOR. CAN WE GET A ROUND OF APPLAUSE? [APPLAUSE]>>I DID NOT GROW UP
IN BIRMINGHAM, DREAMING ABOUT
BECOMING THE MAYOR. THERE WERE NO BLACK ROLE MODELS. THERE WERE NO BLACK MAYORS WHEN
I GREW UP. HAD I SAID THAT MIGHT WANT
TO BE A MIRROR ONE DAY, THEY
MIGHT HAVE PUT ME IN A
STRAITJACKET, BECAUSE THERE WERE
NONE. THERE WERE NO BLACK MAYORS. BUT I GOT THE OPPORTUNITY, GOOD
THINGS HAPPEN. GUY: THOSE GOOD THINGS LASTED
FOR 20 YEARS WITH DR. RICHARD
ARRINGTON LEADING THE CITY OF
BIRMINGHAM AS MAYOR. BUT GETTING INTO POLITICS WAS
NOT AN EASY DECISION. DR. ARRINGTON’S POLITICAL CAREER
STARTED WHEN A GROUP OF STUDENTS
AT MILES COLLEGE CHALLENGED HI
TO RUN FOR CITY COUNCIL IN THE
EARLY 1970’S. HE WAS RELUCTANT AND SENT THEM
AWAY.>>COME BACK TOMORROW, LET ME
THINK ABOUT IT. I DID NOT THINK THEY WERE COMING
BACK. SURE ENOUGH, THE NEXT DAY, THERE
THEY WERE IN THE OFFICE. THAT IS THE SHORT VERSION, I WAS
TOO EMBARRASSED TO SAY NO. THEY HELPED ME GET ELECTED TO
THE CITY COUNCIL. THAT IS HOW IT STARTED, AND HOW
DO YOU GET TO BE MAYOR? I NEVER WANTED TO BE MAYOR. I HAD BEEN ON THE COUNCIL ABOUT
SEVEN YEARS, SERVING MY SECOND
TERM, THINKING ABOUT LEAVING,
WHEN THE BONITA CARTER INCIDENT
OCCURRED. GUY: —
EUNICE: JUNE 22, 1979, A YOUNG
BLACK WOMAN, BONITA CARTER, WAS
KILLED BY A WHITE POLICEMAN.>>I WALKED TO THE MEETING AND
MUCH TO MY SURPRISE, THERE ARE
ABOUT 50 OR 60 MINISTERS THERE
THAT MORNING, AND THEY WERE
UPSET BECAUSE THE CITY HAD NOT
— DISMISSED THE POLICE OFFICER THAT KILLED BONITA CARTER. AND THEY SAID TO ME, WE WANT YOU
TO RUN F MAYOR. AND THEY CAUGHT ME BY SURPRISE. EUNICE BUT EVERYONE WAS NOT
SUPPORTIVE OF THE IDEA OF
ARRINGTON RUNNING FOR MAYOR.>>A.G GASTON, I H
— A POWERBROKER FOR THE WHITE
COMMUNITY ARE BIRMINGHAM, AND
BOTH WERE VERY NICE TO ME, BUT
THEY SAID RICHARD, IT IS NOT
TIME FOR YOU TO RUN FOR IT IT IS NOT TIME FOR A BLACK MAYOR. I KNEW I COU NOT BACK DOWN. I HAD ALREADY ANNOUNCED. EUNICE ON ELECTION NIGHT,
HISTORY WAS MADE, AND THE NEXT
DAY, HE GOT A VERY NICE PHONE
CALL.>>IT WAS A GASTON. HE SAID RICHARD BOY, I
CONGRATULATE YOU. HE SAID, I DID NOT THINK THE
WHITE FOLKS WOULD LET A NEGRO
BECOME MAYOR. I JUST WANT TO TELL YOU ABOUT
HOW PEOPLE RALLIED TOGETHER. EVEN PEOPLE WHO DIDN’T THINK THE
TIME WAS RIGHT. HELPED TO MAKE IT RIGHT AND
RALLIED BEHIND ME. EUNICE: IT WAS A COMMUNITY
COMING TOGETHER TO PUT MAYOR
ARRINGTON ON THEIR SHOULDERS
CHANGING THE POLITICAL CLIMATE
IN BIRMINGHAM IN 1979 AND FOR
MANY YEARS TO COME.>>IN THIS CITY THAT I WAS AB
TO SERVE, THAT YOU WOULD STILL
REMEMBER WHAT WE DID AND WE
WOULD STILL SAY TO ONE ANOTHER,
THANKS. AND WILL STILL UNDERSTAND THAT
WE STILL HAVE WORK TO DO
EUNICE: —
GU LIKE ARRINGTON, ACROSS THE
STATE, THERE ARE STILL MANY
FIRSTS FOR AFTON AMERICANS IN POLITICS. THIS PAST YEAR, TALLADEGA
ELECTED ITS FIRST BLACK MAYOR. TIMOTHY RAGLAND WON THE RACE
AGAINST INCUMBENT MAYOR JERRY
COOPER BACK IN OCTOBER. AND RAGLAND MAKING DOUBLE
HISTORY AS THE CITY’S YOUNGEST
MAYOR. HE SAYS HE WANTS TO IMPROVE THE
CITY’S INFRASTRUCTURE AND
EDUCATION SYSTEM, AND BUILD UP
MORE JOB OPPORTUNITIES
AND A DOUBLE DOSE OF HISTORY AS
MONTGOMERY ALSO ELECTED ITS FIRST AFRICAN-AMERICAN MAYOR. STEVEN REED ELECTED TO REPLACE
FORMER MAYOR TODD STRANGE, WHO,
AFTER A DECADE OF SERVICE, DID
NOT SEEK REELECTION. DURING HIS CAMPAIGN, REED SPOKE
OF INCREASING MONTGOMERY’S
POLICE FORCE, INCREASING SUPPORT
FOR SCHOOLS, AND BRINGING IN
MORE JOBS THAT OFFER A LIVABLE
WAGE. LISA STILL THE CALM, — STILL
TO COM AN IMPORTANT DISCOVERY
MADE OFF THE ALABAMA COAST TO
LINKING A COMMUNITY IN MOBILE TO
THE SLAVE TRADE. WE’LL HEAR ABOUT THE FINDINGS
AFTER MORE THAN 150 YEARS AND
ITS CONNECTION TO MOBILE’S
AFRICATOWN. ♪
EUNICE MOST PEOPLE DO NOT
REALIZE THAT MOBILE IS THE
RESTING PLACE FOR THE LAST SLAVE
SHIP TO MAKE IT TO AMERICAN
SHORES. GUY: IT CONFIRMS THE ROOT OF A
LOT OF THE FOLKS WHO LIVE IN THE
AFRICAOWN COMMUNITY.>>BREA DOUGLAS WENT THERE AND
SHARES THE UNIQUE STORY OF HOW
THE CLOTILDA WAS FOUND AND THE
DREAM IT HOLDS FOR MANY IN
MOBILE.>>JOYCELYN DAVIS — A
FAMILY HISTORY THAT DAVIS HAS
NOT ALWAYS EMBRACE.>>JUST BEING YOUNG AND NAIVE
AND N BEING — BEING SHAMEFUL,
AS I BECAME OLDER AND WISER, I
HAD TO LOOK AT THE STORY IN MY
OWN WAY. I HAD TO BUILD THAT PRIDE. BREA: IT WAS HARD FOR DAVIS
KNOWING THAT HER RELATIVE
ARRIVED ON THE COLTILD WITH 109
OTHER SMUGGLED SLAVES. A WEALTHY BUSINESSMAN MADE A BET
THAT HE COULD KIDNAP PEOPLE IN
AFRICA AND BRING THEM TO THE
U.S. AS SLAVES IN TWO YEARS
TIME. HE WON THAT BET, AND TODAY DAVIS
LIVES IN THE COMMUNITY THOSE
SLAVES HELPED CREATE.>>IT IS AMAZING BECAUSE I
ACTUALLY LIVE NEAR THE ENSLAVERS
AS WELL AS MY ANCESTORS. WE WERE ALL TOGETHER
I DO NOT LIVE FAR FROM TOO MANY
— FROM TIMOTHY AVENUE AND
MAUER’S STREET SO I’M SURROUNDED
IN THIS BOX WITH ALL THIS
HISTOR BREA: IN 1860, 32 OF THE WES
AFRICAN SLAVES STARTED
AFRICATOWN,
A COMMUNITY CONSISTING OF A
CHURCH, SCHOOL, AND CEMETERY. THE MOST WELL KNOWN OF THE GROUP
WAS KUDJOE LEWIS ONE OF THE LAST
KNOWN SURVIVORS OF THE ATLANTIC
SLAVE TRADE.>>THE COMMEMORATIVE HEADSTONE
FOR HIM THAT WAS PLACED IN 2002
TO ACKNOWLEDGE EVERYTHING THAT
HE DID FROM 1860 UNTIL HIS
DEMISE IN 1935. BREA: ERIC FINLEY IS A TOUR
GUIDE FOR MOBILE’S AFRICAN
AMERICAN HERITAGE TOUR. HE SAYS WHILE THE SLAVES MADE
POSITIVE CONTRIBUTIONS IN
MOBILE, IT NEVER FELT LIKE HOME
FOR THEM. ERIC: ALL THEY EVER WANTED TO DO
WAS TO RETURN BACK TO AFRICA TO
THEIR HOME AND THEY NEVER HAD
THAT OPPORTUNITY AND THEY STAYED
HERE AND THEY MADE A WAY OUT OF
NO WAY. BREA: IT IS BELIEVED TO THE
MAUER FAMILY TRIED TO TO BLOW
THE SHIP UP WITH DYNAMITE TO GET
RID OF EVIDENCE OF THEIR
ANCESTORS PARTICIPATION IN THE
SLAVE TRADE.>>I DID NOT REALLY KNOW THE
CLOTILDA STORY THAT WELL AND
THIS BUDDY OF MINE CALLED ME UP
AND SAID, YOU SHOULD LOOK FOR
THE CLOTILDA.THAT’S THE BIGGEST
MYSTERY OUT THERE. BREA: BEN RAINES IS AN
AWARD-WINNING ENVIRONMENTAL
JOURNALIST FROM FAIRHOPE ABOUT
20 MINUTES FROM MOBILE. THE FACT NO ONE EVER DISCOVERED
THE CLOTILDA INTRIGUED HIM. SO HE SET OUT TO FIND IT. HE THOUGHT HE’D SUCCEEDED AT
FIRST, BUT WAS MISTAKE
THEN: WHICH WAS, AS A
JOURNALIST, A PERSONALLY
DEVASTATING THING TO HAVE
HAPPEN. THE STORY OF THE FIRST SHIP WENT
VIRAL, INTERNATIONAL. BREA: TWO MONTHS LATER, IN APRIL
2018, HE ACCOMPLISHED HIS QUEST. BEN: IT HAD ALL THESE
HANDMADE BLACKSMITH NAILS COMING
OUT OF IT AND I JUST TURNED TO
THE GUYS ON THE BOAT AND I SAID
, WE JUST FOUND A SHIP FROM THE
1850’S. THAT WAS THE FIRST MOMENT THAT
THE CLOTILDA HAD SEEN THE LIGHT
OF DAY IN 160 YEARS. BREA: KAMAU SADIKI HAS TAKEN
ALMOST 1,000 DIVES LOOKING FOR
SLAVE SHIP WRECKS. HE HELPED CONFIRM THE DISCOVERY
OF THE SHI
>>IT HAD A CENTERBOARD ON IT. THE TYPE OF MATERIAL USED
CONSTRUCT THE VESSEL. SO EVERYTHING BEGAN TO LINE UP
AND THAT’S WHEN THE REALITY
BEGAN TO SET IN THAT THIS IS THE
CLOTILDA. BREA: OFFICIAL CONFIRMATION CAME
IN MAY OF 2019. THIRTEEN MONTHS AFTER BEN RAINES
DISCOVERED IT. HE’S NOW WRITING A BOOK ABOUT
HIS DISCOVERY AND THERE AR
TALKS OF A DOCUMENTARY.>>THERE ARE A LOT OF PEOPLE IN
AFRICATOWN THAT ARE VERY WORRIED
THAT THE SCHIPHOL BE TAKEN UP ON
TH THIS PLAY SOMEWHERE
ELSE LIKE THE SMITHSONIAN.>>THEY HAVE ENOUGH IN
WASHINGTON. WE NEED IT HERE. I THINK THAT IT WOULD GENERA
SOME TYPE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IF
THOSE DOLLARS CAN GO BACK INTO
THE NEIGHBORHOOD BECAUSE
AFRICATOWN NEEDS TO BE
REVITALIZED. BREA: INSTEAD OF MONETARY
REPARATIONS, SHE’D LIKE T
MEAHER FAMILY TO OFFER SOMETHING
MORE MONUMENTAL, LIKE A MUSEUM.>>MOBILE NEEDS THIS, WE NEE
THIS. BREA: IN MOBILE, BR DOUGLAS,
WVTM 13. EUNICE A SPENDING BILL RECENTLY
PASSED IN WASHINGTON INCLUDES
MONEY FOR SEVERAL PRIORITIES IN
ALABAMA INCLUDING $500,000 TO
HELP EXCAVATE THE CLOTIDA. THE MONEY WILL ALSO GO TOWAR
EDUCATION AND COMMUNITY
SURROUNDING THE VESSEL. LISA: FROM JAZZ TO CLASSICAL AND
EVERYTHING IN BETWEEN. THE HISTORY OF MUSIC IN ALABAMA
KNOWS NO BOUNDS. EUNICE: —
GU MARY O’CONNELL SHARES THE
SWEET SOUND OF THE PAST AND IN
THE FUTURE. MARY: DR. HENRY PANION KNEW FROM
A YOUNG AGE HIS LIFE WAS MEANT
TO BE IN MUSIC. DR. PAION: I WOULD GO
OUTSIDE AND PLAY STREET TO BALL
WITH MY BUDDIES AND I WOULD
SNEAK IN THE HOUSE AND WATCH
“SOUND OF MUSIC” WITH MY
SISTER. MARY: THAT LOVE FOR MUSIC
EVOLVED INTO A STORIED CAREER,
AS A CONDUCTOR, COMPOSER,
ARRANGER, AND PRODUCER. WORKING WITH ARTISTS LIKE ARETHA
FRANKLIN.>>BEING ON ROYAL ALBERT HALL IN
LONDON CONDUCTING THE ROYAL
PHILHARMONIC WITH THEM IN FRONT
OF ME AND STEVIE WONDER BEHI
ME, THAT WAS PRETTY COOL. [APPLAUSE]
MARY: IN SEPTEMBER, PANION WAS
INDUCTED INTO THE ALABAMA ARTS
HALL OF FAME FOR HIS
CONTRIBUTIONS THROUGHOUT HIS
CAREER. ONE OF FOUR HONORED THIS YEAR
THROUGH THE ALABAMA CENTER FOR
THE ARTS IN DECATUR. DR. PANION: TO BE HONORED BY
PEOPLE WHILE YOU ARE STILL
ALIVE, THAT IS PRETTY EXCITING. MARY: FROM ONE GREAT, TO ANOTHER
FROM THE PAST TO HELPED PAVE THE
WAY. ♪ [JAZZ MUSIC]
>>WHEN YOU THINK OF JAZZ, YOU
THINK OF ERSKINE HAWKINS
MARY: A JAZZ LEGEND, BORN RIGHT
HERE IN BIRMINGHAM. ERSKINE HAWKINS. HAWKINS COMPOSED THE SONG TUXEDO
JUNCTION. NAMED FOR AN AREA IN ENSLEY,
ONCE A HUB FOR BIRMINGHAM’S
AFRICAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITY. ♪ [JAZZ MUSIC]
>>IT PUT BIRMINGHAM ON THE MAP
THE WORLD OVER
MARY: MAGNOLIA COOK IS THE
CHAIRPERSON OF FUNCTION IN THE
JUNCTION, A FREE EVENT HIGHLIGHTING MUSIC IN THE
COMMUNITY FOR MORE THAN 3
DECADES. SHE AND COMMITTEE MEMBER FAN
BAILEY HOPE THE FESTIVAL, HELD
IN ERSKINE HAWKINS PARK, HELPS
KEEP THAT MUSIC HISTORY ALIV
>>IT BRINGS THE FAMILY TOGETHER
AND PEOPLE THAT HAVE NOT SEEN EACH OTHER FOR YEARS.>>WE WANTED TO LET EVERYBODY
KNOW THAT BIRMINGHAM HAS TALENT. AND NOT ONLY THE TEMPTATIONS AND
EDDI KENDRICKS, AND THE ENSLEY
JUBILEES. MARY: EACH YEAR, THE FUNCTION
AND THE JOHNSON COMMITTEE GIVE
SCHOLARSHIP TO LOCALS WITH AN
INTEREST IN MUSIC WHO ARE GOING
OFF TO COLLEGE, HOPING TO
INSPIRE THE NEXT GENERATION OF MUSICIANS.>>WHO KNOWS, FROM THOSE
SCHOLARSHIPS, WE MAY HAVE
ANOTHER ERSKINE HAWKINS. MARY: OR A DOCTOR HENRY PANION
WHO IS NOW THE DIRECTOR OF UAB’S
MUSIC TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM. HELPING SHAPE CAREERS OF YOUNG
ARTISTS, ONCE LIKE HIMSELF. HE WANTS BUDDING ARTISTS T
REMEMBER. DR. PANIO IF YOU HAVE
SOMETHING TO OFFER, THERE IS A
PLACE FOR YOU. MARY: THERE COULD BE A SPOT IN
HISTORY FOR YOU, TOO. IN BIRMINGHAM, MARY O’CONNELL,
WVTM13
>>STILL SUCCUMB, MARCHING TO
THEIR OWN B. GUY: WE LOOK AT THE POWERFUL
IMPACT OF HBCU BANDS HAVE ON
MEMBERS. AND HOW THAT TRANSLATES ONTO THE
FIELD. ♪
>>MISS WORLD, MISS UNIVERSE,
MISS TEEN U, MISS USA, AND
MISS AMERICA MADE HISTORY IN
2019 AS FOR THE FIRST TIME EVER,
ALL FIVE OF THE MAJOR BEAUTY PAGEANT TITLES WERE WON BY
AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN. IN ADDITION TO ADDING MORE OF
THE CONTESTANTS’ LIVES AND
COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT INTO THE
JUDGING, TOGETHER, THEIR WINDS
SHOW THA COME FISHING HAVE
EVOLVED FROM TYPICALLY ONLY VALIDATING A SINGLE STANDARD FOR
BEAUTY. AND WAS A BIG STEP FORWARD IN
THE HISTORIC
UNDERREPRESENTATION OF AFGHAN
AMERICAN WOMEN WITHIN THE
PAGEANT SYSTEM. TIARA PENNINGTON MADE HISTORY IN
OUR STATE BY BECOMING THE FIRS
AFRICAN-AMERICAN TO BE CROWNED
MISS UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA. TIARA WENT ON TO BE CROWNED AS
THE SECOND BLACK MISS ALABAMA IN
HISTORY AND REPRESENTED THE
STATE WELL IN THE MISS AMERICA
COMPETITION, PLACING WITHIN THE
TOP HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGE AND
UNIVERSITY BANDS HAVE BEEN
AROUND FOR DECADES. THEIR PERFORMANCES ARE LIKE
NO OTHER.>>B AS ZAVIER HARRIS FOUND
OUT, IT IS MORE THAN JUST TAKING
THE FIELD AND PERFORMING. IT IS ALSO ABOUT BUILDING
RELATIONSHIPS AND LEARNING LIFE
LESSONS.>>THE MARCHIN STYLE OF HBC
U BANDS. IT IS A COMBINATION OF HIP,
UP-TO-DATE DANCES TO MORE UPBEAT
MUSI
>>IT WAS A LITTLE BIT MORE
PRECISION, AND A LITTLE BIT MORE
HARDER.>>THE UNIQUE STYLE DATES BACK
TO THE MID-1940’S.>>THE BAND HAVE EVOLVED FROM
THE MILITARY AND IF YOU WOULD
LOOK AT SOME OLD TAPES OF THE
ARMY BANDS, YOU WOULD SEE THAT
THEY WERE HIGH-STEPPING BANDS
UNTIL THEY WENT INTO A GLI STEP.>>WHICH IS THE STYLE FORMALLY
KNOWN AS CORE STYLE.>>THEY DON’T DO A LOT OF THE
MOVEMENT BESIDES MARCHING AND
THEIR WHOLE STYLE OF MARCHING IS
WHAT I CALL — THEY HAVE WHAT WE
CALL HEEL-TO
WITH US, WE HAVE TOE-HEEL ZAVIER: FLORIDA A&M’S FIRST BAND
DIRECTOR VAN WELLER IS CREDITED
FOR MAKING THE CHANGE TO THE
FOOTBALL HALFTIME PERFORMANCE. THAT’S STILL BEING USED TODAY
AND DRAWING CROWDS.>>SEEING A HBCU BAND MAINLY
WITH BLACK PEOPLE IN IT AND
SEEING WHAT TALENT THEY HAVE AND
SHOWN ON THE FIELD IS TYPICALLY
MIND BLOWING. ZAVIER: ALABAMA STATE
UNIVERSITY’S BAND DIRECTOR JAMES
OLIVER SAYS FOR HIS STUDEN
, BEING IN AN HBCU BAND IS LIFE
CHANGING.>>TALKING TO STUDENTS, THEY
WILL SAY, DR. OLIVER, IF IT WAS
NOT FOR BAND, I WOULD NOT BE IN
SCHOOL. ZAVIER: STUDENT SAY BEING A PART
OF THE BAND IS LIKE A FAMILY.>>IT IS MORE THAN WHAT YOU JUST
JUST SEE ON THE FIELD, WE CALL
EACH OTHER, ZAVIER: WE TUTOR
EACH OTHER. A SISTERHOOD AND THE BROTHERHOOD
OF DIFFERENT PEOPLE OF THE SAME
RACE CONNECTING TO CELEBRATE
UNIQUE CULTURE.>>WHEN YOU WALK ON THE CAMPUS,
YOU CAN FEEL JUST HOW PROUD
EVERYONE IS TO BE BLACK. ZAVIER: THAT HALFTIME SHOW IS
NUMBER ONE REASON THEY SHOW UP
TO GAMES.>>WE ARE LIKE THE MAIN
ATTRACTION THE WHOLE GAME THE
FIELD SHOW AND AFTER THE GAME.>>WE CAN SEE THE CROWDS, THEY
DON’T LEAVE. ZAVIER: BUT ONE OF THE LARGEST
HBCU FOOTBALL GAMES IN THE
COUNTRY IS RIGHT HERE IN OUR
VERY OWN BACKYARDS. MAGIC CITY CLASSIC. THE ANNUAL GAME BETWEEN ALABAMA
A&M UNIVERSITY AND ALABAMA STATE
UNIVERSITY, THE TWO LARGEST
HBCUS IN THE STATE.>>WHEN WE PULLED UP IN T BUS
, YOU CAN ALREADY FEEL THE
ENERGY IN THE AIR. ZAVIER: BUT IT IS MORE THAN JUST
FAN LOVE FOR STUDENTS. THEY SAY BEING APART OF AN HBCU
BAND ALSO TEACHES THEM LIFE
LESSONS.>>IT BENEFITS ME MAINLY WITH MY
WORK ETHICS. ZAVIER: DR. OLIVER HAS BEEN A
BAND DIRECTOR FOR MORE THAN 40
YEARS AND SAYS THE MOST
REWARDING PART OF IT IS NO
MAKING STUDENTS BETTER
MUSICIANS, BUT PROVIDING THEM WITH OPPORTUNITIES.>>TO BE A PART OF SOME
FUNCTIONS, SOME EVENTS THAT
MAYBE THEY NEVER WOULD’VE HAVE
HAD THE OPPORTUNITY. ZAVIER WITH EVERY NOTE PLAYED,
STEP TAKEN, AND MOVE MADE ON THE
FIEL HBCU’S MARCHING BANDS
TAKE A UNIQUE PLACE IN AMERICA’S
MUSIC AND PERFORMANCE HISTORY. THE BAND HAS BECOME A VITAL PART
OF HBCU PRIDE AND
REPRESENTATION. IN BIRMINGHAM, XAVIER HARRIS,
WVTM 13.>>JUST LIKE THOSE BANDS, ALL OF
THE CIVIL RIGHTS PIONEERS AND
UNSUNG HEROES OF THE MOVEMENT
HAVE MARCH AND PAVED THE WAY TO
GAIN EQUALITY. GUY: AND THAT FIGHT CONTINUES
TODAY, FROM INSIDE OUR SCHOOLS
ALL THE WAY UP TO THE BALLOT
BOX. EUNICE: IF YOU’D LIKE TO SEE ANY
OF THESE STORIES AGAIN JUS
VISIT OUR WEBSITE. AND ON BEHALF OF ALL OF US HERE
AT WVTM, THANK YOU FOR WATCHING. ♪
[SINGING

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